Fragmentation of Peacemaking in Libya: Reality and Perception

Authors: Jalel Harchaoui and Bernardo Mariani

After ousting Colonel Moammar Gadhafi from power in 2011 with the aid of a NATO bombing campaign, the Libyan rebel groups that fought the autocrat turned on each other in a struggle to fill the country’s power vacuum. This led to several bouts of civil war, a proliferation of armed groups, and additional foreign military interventions.

This report focuses on the engagements of countries that have recently had the most sizable role and the most assertive posture in the Libyan crisis — namely Russia, Turkey, and the UAE. The latest political analysis, media reports, and original interviews with Libyan and foreign stakeholders demonstrate how local actors interpret the role and effect of non-Western actors that are involved in Libya, and enable drafting of possible future scenarios.

The Global Transitions Series looks at fragmentations in the global order and how these impact peace and transition settlements. It explores why and how different third-party actors – state, intergovernmental, and non-governmental – intervene in conflicts, and how they see themselves contributing to reduction of conflict and risks of conflict relapse. The series critically assesses the growth and diversification of global and regional responses to contemporary conflicts. It also asks how local actors are navigating this multiplicity of mediators and peacebuilders and how this is shaping conflict outcomes and post-conflict governance.