Peace Agreements in 2023: Insights from the PA-X Database

Authors: Adam Farquhar, Niamh Henry, Juline Beaujouan, Laura Wise, Jennifer Hodge, Tomas Vancisin, Winnie Xia, Robert Wilson, and Tim Epple

Following the release of Version 8 of the PA-X Peace Agreements Database and the addition of 52 new agreements, this data report explores global insights into peace agreements signed in 2023, their characteristics, analysis of the agreement contents and key topics, as well as data on gender provisions in peace agreements and the four local agreements added to the database.

With peace agreement numbers in 2023 primarily driven by the Colombian peace process, the report presents data on this process since 1990, and the 21 Colombian agreements added to the PA-X collection in 2023. The report also explores the role of China as a third party, with China mediating an agreement between Iran and Saudi Arabia in 2023, marking a notable shift in global diplomatic dynamics.

Finally, the report discusses the limitations of PA-X data and suggests areas for future research, including the need to interrogate the changing nature and characteristics of peace processes.

PA-X is a database containing 2,055 peace agreements, found in more than 150 peace processes between 1990 and 2024. Explore the PA-X Peace Agreements Database V8.