Key Publications: Implementation


Molloy, S. Assessing and Influencing Progress in Peace Processes Workshop Report (2018)

This report has been produced from the workshop on Assessing and Influencing Progress in Peace Processes held at Barcelona on May 30-June 1, 2018. The workshop brought together a fruitful combination of researchers, policy actors and practitioners, including a mixture of state and civil society actors, to explore new and emerging developments in methodologies and approaches used to assess and influence progress in peace processes.

Bell, C. & Molloy, S. How Peace Agreements Provide for Implementation (2019)

This report examines the ways in which peace agreements provide for their own implementation or the implementation of specific issues committed to in a peace accord. The report illustrates that the particular context will shape what implementation mechanisms are chosen, but that there are a variety of mechanisms and modalities to support the implementation of a peace agreement, which can be illustrated from examining what existing peace agreements have put in place.

Bell, C. & McNicholl, K. Principled Pragmatism and the ‘Inclusion Project’: Implementing a Gender Perspective in Peace Agreements (2019)

UN Security Council Resolution 1325 of 2000 provided that peace agreements should adopt a ‘gender perspective’. This commitment has been reiterated in women, peace and security resolutions since that time. This article uses a mixed qualitative and quantitative analysis to consider when and how peace agreements have adopted a gender perspective, using a new PA-X peace agreement database to analyse over 1500 peace and transition agreements from between 1990 and 2016.

Molloy, S. Peace Agreements and Trust Funds (PA-X Report) (2019)

A ‘Trust Fund’ or ‘Multi Donor Trust Fund’ (MDTF) is a ‘multi-agency funding mechanism, designed to receive contributions from more than one donor (and often also the recipient government), that is held in trust by an appointed administrative agent’ (Walton, 2011: 1). This report examines how peace agreements have addressed or contributed to the establishment or ongoing operation of trust funds. 

O’Rourke, C.Women’s Rights in Armed Conflict under International Law (2020)

Laws and norms that focus on women’s lives in conflict have proliferated across the regimes of international humanitarian law, international criminal law, international human rights law and the United Nations Security Council. While separate institutions, with differing powers of monitoring and enforcement, implement these laws and norms, the activities of regimes overlap. Women’s Rights in Armed Conflict under International Law is the first book to account for this pluralism and institutional diversity. This book identifies key aspects of how different regimes regulate women’s rights in conflict, and how they interact. Using country case studies to reveal the practical implications of the fragmented protection of women’s rights in conflict, this book offers a dynamic account of how regimes and institutions interact, the extent to which they reinforce each other, and the tensions and gaps in regulation that emerge. 

Salmon, J. Moving From Conflict: the Role of International Actors in Transition Management (PSRP Research Report: Interim Transitions Series) (2020)

This report reviews the types of international actors, types of support and priority sectors of international action. It concludes by offering some brief reflections on dilemmas and trade-offs related to the ownership, burden-sharing, coordination and sequencing of international action. The report emphasizes the duality of international support for transition management – both technical and political – underscoring the significant tensions and trade-offs between building short-term confidence in a political settlement, and addressing longer-term institutional reforms. The report concludes by highlighting the primacy of politics in transition management. The most constructive role for international partners has usually been to create space for negotiations and, in some cases, safety nets – fiscal and economic, security, human and social capacity, and/or political – to protect nascent political settlements from shocks and enable them to move forward. 

Swaine, A. Understanding and Addressing Conflict-Related Violence Against Women (PSRP Briefing Paper) (2018)

Women experience many different types of violence in conflict. Peace and conflict agendas tend to focus on preventing particular forms of violence (for example strategic rape). Increased recognition is required of the different forms of violence which women experience, the ways that they are linked across pre, during and post-conflict contexts and that the inter-relationship in forms of violence needs to be addressed.

Swaine, A. Re-shaping How Political Settlements Engage with Conflict-Related Violence Against Women (2019)

The paper presents a new ‘pre, during- and post-conflict framework’ to map, on the basis of theory and empirics, the inter- relationship between VAW within and outside conflict. Applied to the case study of Timor-Leste, the paper finds that common across time and space are the sustained presence of gendered harms, and that VAW is ambulant in nature and responsive to context, identifying connections and distinctions in VAW across conflict-time and peace-time.